Rendering Content

Showing content to the user.

A big part of a controller's task is to respond to the user. In Wheels you can
respond to the user in three different ways:

  • Displaying content
  • Redirecting to another URL
  • Sending a file

You can only respond once per request. If you do not explicitly call any of the
response functions ( renderView(), sendFile() etc) then Wheels will
assume that you want to show the view for the current controller and action and
do it for you.

This chapter covers the first method listed above—displaying content. The
chapters about Redirecting Users and Sending Files cover the other two
response methods.

Rendering a Page

This is the most common way of responding to the user. It's done with the
renderView() function, but most often you probably won't call it
yourself and instead let Wheels do it for you.

Sometimes you will want to call it though and specify to show a view page for a
controller/action other than the current one. One common technique for handling
a form submission, for example, is to show the view page for the
controller/action that contains the form (as opposed to the one that just
handles the form submission and redirects the user afterwards). When doing this,
it's very important to keep in mind that renderView() will
not run the code for the controller's action—all it does is process the view
page for it.

You can also call renderView() explicitly if you wish to cache the response
or use a different layout than the default one.

If the controller and action arguments do not give you enough flexibility,
you can use the template argument that is available for renderView().

Refer to the Pages chapter for more details about rendering content. More
specifically, that chapter describes where to place those files and what goes in

Rendering a Partial

This is done with the renderPartial() function. It's most often used with
AJAX requests that are meant to update only parts of a page.

Rendering Nothing at All

Sometimes you don't need to return anything at all to the browser. Perhaps
you've made an AJAX request that does not require a response or executed a
scheduled task that no end user sees the results of. In these cases you can use
the renderNothing() function to tell Wheels to just render an empty page to
the browser.

Rendering Text

This is done with the renderText() function. It just returns the text you
specify. In reality it is rarely used but could be useful as a response to AJAX
requests sometimes.

Rendering to a Variable

Normally when you call any of the rendering functions, the result is stored
inside an internal Wheels variable. This value is then outputted to the browser
at the end of the request.

Sometimes you may want to do some additional processing on the rendering result
before outputting it though. This is where the returnAs argument comes in
handy. It's available on both renderView() and renderPartial().
Setting returnAs to string will return the result to you instead of placing
it in the internal Wheels variable.

Caching the Response

Two of the functions listed above are capable of caching the content for you;
renderView() and renderPartial(). Just pass in cache=true (to use
the default cache time set in config/settings.cfm) or cache=x where x is
the number of minutes you want to cache the content for. Keep in mind that this
caching respects the global setting set for it in your configuration files so
normally no pages will be cached when in Design or Development mode.

We cover caching in greater detail in the Caching chapter.

Using a Layout

The renderView() function accepts an argument named layout. Using this
you can wrap your content with common header/footer style code. This is such an
important concept though so we'll cover all the details of it in the chapter
called Using Layouts.